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Title: The Importance of Perioperative Prophylaxis with Cefuroxime or Ceftriaxone in the Surgical Site Infections Prevention after Cranial and Spinal Neurosurgical Procedures
Authors: Gavrilovska Dimovska, Aleksandra 
Chaparoski, Aleksandar 
Gavrilovski, Andreja 
Milenkovikj, Zvonko 
Issue Date: 1-Sep-2017
Publisher: Македонска академија на науките и уметностите, Одделение за медицински науки = Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Section of Medical Sciences/ Sciendo
Journal: Prilozi (Makedonska akademija na naukite i umetnostite. Oddelenie za medicinski nauki) 
Abstract: Introduction Surgical site infections pose a significant problem in the treatment of neurosurgical procedures, regardless of the application of perioperative prophylaxis with systemic antibiotics. The infection rate in these procedures ranges from less than 1% to above 15%. Different antibiotics and administration regimes have been used in the perioperative prophylaxis so far, and there are numerous comparative studies regarding their efficiency, however, it is generally indicated that the choice thereof should be based on information and local specifics connected to the most probable bacterial causers, which would possibly contaminate the surgical site and cause infection, and moreover, the mandatory compliance with the principles of providing adequate concentration of the drug at the time of the anticipated contamination. Objective Comparing the protective effect of two perioperative prophylactic antibiotic regimes using cefuroxime (second generation cephalosporin) and ceftriaxone (third generation cephalosporin) in the prevention of postoperative surgical site infections after elective and urgent cranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures at the University Clinic for Neurosurgery in Skopje in the period of the first three months of 2016. Design of the study Prospective randomized comparative study. Outcome measures Establishing the clinical outcome represented as prevalence of superficial and deep incision and organ/space postoperative surgical site infections. Material and method We analyzed prospectively 40 patients who received parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis with two antibiotic regimes one hour before the routine neurosurgical cranial and spinal surgical procedures; the patients were randomized in two groups, according to the order of admission and participation in the study, alternately, non-selectively, those persons who fulfilled inclusion criteria were placed in one of the two programmed regimes with cefuroxime in the first, and cefotaxime in the second compared group. All relevant demographic and perioperative patient data were analyzed for both comparative groups, especially the factors known to cause disposition (predisposition) to infections. The prevalence of postoperative infections was evaluated as the primary outcome in both comparative groups, while the secondary outcome was the postoperative infection rate after cranial and spinal neurosurgical procedures at the Neurosurgical clinic in Skopje (having in consideration that so far no data have been published in this context), as well as the prevalence of the risk factors for occurrence of postoperative infections, pre-surgically in patients undergoing neurosurgical interventions locally in the Republic of Macedonia. Results A total of three cases of postoperative infections were registered, two of which classified as superficial incisional, while one case organ/space infection - meningitis (elective intervention) without etiological confirmation. Both comparative groups were statistically similar, without any statistically significant differences in the basic demographic and perioperative characteristics, especially in relation to the incidence of the factors, which, regardless of the antibiotic prophylaxis, show predisposition to postoperative infections. All three cases with infections were registered in the group of persons who received prophylaxis with ceftriaxone preoperatively, with isolated etiological S. aureus agent (elective intervention) in one of them, and methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in another (urgent intervention) with superficial incisional SSI. There was no case of SSI in the group of patients who received cefuroxime before surgery. Conclusion Administration of parenteral antibiotics before surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative infections after neurosurgical procedures, especially in cases with increased risk factors for SSI, such as ACA score of ≥ 2/3, the duration of the surgical intervention ≥ 4 hours, contaminated wound and comorbidities. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis should be directed to better coverage of the S.aureus arrays.
ISSN: 1857-9345
DOI: 10.1515/prilozi-2017-0026
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medicine: Journal Articles

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