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Title: Aerial Scene Classification through Fine-Tuning with Adaptive Learning Rates and Label Smoothing
Authors: Petrovska, Biserka
Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana
Corizzo, Roberto
Mignone, Paolo
Lameski, Petre 
Zdravevski, Eftim 
Issue Date: 21-Aug-2020
Publisher: MDPI AG
Journal: Applied Sciences
Abstract: <jats:p>Remote Sensing (RS) image classification has recently attracted great attention for its application in different tasks, including environmental monitoring, battlefield surveillance, and geospatial object detection. The best practices for these tasks often involve transfer learning from pre-trained Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). A common approach in the literature is employing CNNs for feature extraction, and subsequently train classifiers exploiting such features. In this paper, we propose the adoption of transfer learning by fine-tuning pre-trained CNNs for end-to-end aerial image classification. Our approach performs feature extraction from the fine-tuned neural networks and remote sensing image classification with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model with linear and Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernels. To tune the learning rate hyperparameter, we employ a linear decay learning rate scheduler as well as cyclical learning rates. Moreover, in order to mitigate the overfitting problem of pre-trained models, we apply label smoothing regularization. For the fine-tuning and feature extraction process, we adopt the Inception-v3 and Xception inception-based CNNs, as well the residual-based networks ResNet50 and DenseNet121. We present extensive experiments on two real-world remote sensing image datasets: AID and NWPU-RESISC45. The results show that the proposed method exhibits classification accuracy of up to 98%, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods.</jats:p>
DOI: 10.3390/app10175792
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering: Journal Articles

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